Jottings 50
If you think J is complex try j
Norman Thomson
This article is about the facilities available in J for handling complex numbers, something which is greatly helped by a few simple diagrams.
1. The two complex number constructors
Although complex numbers are readily input using numeric constants,
e.g. 12.5j_7.9
, in meaningful applications the components
are more likely to be expressions from which complex numbers are
constructed. J has two tools for constructing complex
numbers, namely j.
and r.
These correspond
to their two possible representations, namely as 2lists of Cartesian
(that is xy) coordinates, and as 2lists of polar coordinates (that
is {length, angle}). The way in which j.
and
r.
work is illustrated by
(2 j.1),(2 r.1) NB. the two complex no. constructors 2j1 1.0806j1.68294
The second of these results shows that 2 times the coordinates of the end point of a radius of the unit circle at an angle of 1 radian are approximately (1.08, 1.68). For primary input in the form of 2lists use insert:
(j./2 1),(r./2 1) 2j1 1.0806j1.68294
Informally, j.
compresses xy coordinates into complex
numbers, and r.
converts polar representation to complex
number form. Monadic j.
is dyadic j.
with a
default left argument of 0, while monadic r.
is dyadic
r.
with a default left argument of 1. It is not a
coincidence that these defaults are the identity elements of addition
and multiplication. r.k
where k
is real
returns the Cartesian coordinates of the point on the unit circle
whose polar coordinates are (1,k), for example
r.1 NB. coords of radius at 1 radian 0.540302j0.841471
r.k
is represented by
e^{ik}
in maths and thus by
^j.k
in J, an operation also available through the circle
verb as _12 o.k
. The fact that r.
and
^j.
are synonyms links the two complex number
constructors. More generally the circle functions with arguments in
the ranges {9…12} and {_9…_12} are directly relevant to complex number
construction, and they too have synonyms which will emerge as the
discussion continues. The equivalence of r.
and
^j.
will come to the fore later in section 6 when
discussing complex powers.
2. The complex number deconstructors
The construction process is reversed (that is complex numbers are
converted back to 2lists) by +.
for Cartesian
coordinates and *.
for polar coordinates:
+.2j1 1.0806j1.682941 NB. +. reverses j./ 2 1 1.0806 1.68294 *.2j1 1.0806j1.682941 NB. *. reverses r./ 2.23607 0.463648 2 1
The circle verb provides the opportunity to obtain the
components of +.
and *.
one by one:
9 11 o.2j1 NB. 9 o. is x. , 11 o. is y 2 1 10 12 o.2j1 NB. 10 o. is length, 12 o. is angle 2.23607 0.463648
The following is a ‘rule of thumb’ table which summarises the meanings of the circle verbs and incorporates the above ideas :
n o.  n o.  
_9  identity  
_10  conjugate  
construct  deconstruct  
_11  j.  +.  9, 11 
_12  r.(^j.)  *.  10, 12 
3. Monadic operations with complex numbers
J provides alternative routes for several common complex numbers
operations. In the diagrams below, a complex number z
is represented by the arrowed line, and other points represent
the results of the fundamental monadic arithmetic operations
of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, separately and
in combination with j.
as well as those of the circle
functions which are synonyms.
The symbol ±
is used here to denote either of the verbs
[email protected]@j.
or [email protected][email protected]
since they are equivalent. The points
z ±z z +z
represent a rectangle formed by reflections in the x and y axes with
vertices visited anticlockwise, while the points
j.z ±j.z j.z +j.z
represent a rectangle formed by reflections in the diagonal axes with
vertices visited clockwise. In addition to the three circle function
synonyms shown for circle functions, _12 o.
is a synonym
for r.
as noted earlier.
The symmetries of rectangles can be represented by groups of verbs of
order 4 in which I
is the identity verb :
Rotations  {I  j. j. } 
j. j. are anticlockwise/clockwise rotations of π/4 
Reflections  {I  + ± } 
+ ± are reflections in main axes, 
{I  ±@j. [email protected] } 
±@j. [email protected] are reflections in diagonal axes 
From these as starting points the full order8 group table for the symmetries of the square can easily be obtained.
4. Basic dyadic operations
The basic operations +  * %
behave as expected, and rules
such as the following are obeyed:
5j2*3j4 NB. modulus of a product is .. 26.9258 (5j2)*(3j4) NB. .. the product of moduli 26.9258 12 o. 5j2*3j4 NB. the angle of a product .. 1.3078 +/12 o. 5j2 3j4 NB. .. is the sum of the angles 1.3078
Also
+/5j2*3j4 7j26
is equivalent numerically to


= 

and


= 

showing that multiplication of complex numbers is equivalent to the
inner product +/ .*
for matrices of the form
a  –b 
b  a 
When multiplication takes the angle outside the range
[π, π], *.
and 12 o.
automatically make a wraparound to bring the angle back into range,
for example
wrap=.3 :0 t=.(o.2)y. if.t>o.1 do.t=.to.2 end. ) +/12 o._5j2 _3j4 NB. sum of angles exceeds pi 4.97538 12 o._5j2*_3j4 _1.3078 wrap 4.97538 NB. 4.975.. + 1.307.. = 2pi _1.3078
Complex numbers raised to real powers are the subject of de Moivre’s theorem. This depends on the fundamental relation
e ^{iθ} = cos θ + i sin θ
which in J expresses the fact that the verbs ^@j.
and j./@(2 1&o.)
are equivalent.
De Moivre’s theorem says that
(re ^{iθ}) ^{n} = r ^{n} e ^{inθ} = r ^{n} {cos nθ + i sin nθ}
so to raise complex z to the power n its modulus should
be raised to the power n and its angle multiplied by n.
To see this in action raise 2j1
to the powers 1, 2 and 8
in first Cartesian and then polar form:
+.2j1^1 2 8 2 1 NB. modulus = sqrt(5) 3 4 NB. modulus = 5 _527 _336 NB. modulus = 625 = 5^4 *.2j1^1 2 8 2.23607 0.463648 NB. (length,angle) for 2j1 5 0.927295 NB. (length,angle) for 2j1 ^2 625 _2.574 NB. (length,angle) for 2j1 ^8
The angle in the last line above can be confirmed by
wrap 8*0.463648 _2.574
It may be tempting to use the circle function _3 o.
arctan to obtain angles, but this only works in simple cases because
the range of arctan is [π/2, π/2]. The range for complex
numbers is double this because arctan makes no distinction between
(x)/y and x/(y), whereas the difference between second and fourth
quadrants is significant in dealing with complex numbers.
5. The enhanced arithmetic operations
The second diagram illustrates the actions of the J verbs which are obtained from the basic arithmetic operations by adding ‘colon’ to make a digram:
Only one of these four forms – namely %:
– extends to the
dyadic case, for example 4%:z
means (4th root of length,
¼ angle).
In the case of digrams formed by adding fullstop 1.z
is the same as with real numbers and %.
and
%
are exactly equivalent. If either *.
or
+.
are applied to real scalar numbers the results are
2lists made by joining zeros. This can be used as a method of
stitching 0s as in
+.3 4 3 0 4 0
With real numbers dyadic *.
and +.
are LCM
and GCD respectively, but these should not be used with complex
arguments in the expectation of obtaining the separate GCDs and LCMs
of their components. For example
(5j6 +. 10j3),(5j6 *. 10j3) 0j1 75j_32
6. Complex Powers and Logarithms
To understand complex powers, start with the synonym relationship
between r.
and ^j.
(or _12 o.
),
which at first sight should lead to j.
and
^.r.
also being synonyms. This is indeed true in some
cases:
(j.2j1),(^.r.2j1) _1j2 _1j2
but not always:
(j.12j10),(^.r.12j10) _10j12 _10j_0.566371
This is because, unlike in real arithmetic, the logarithm of a complex
number is not a singlevalued function. In Cartesian coordinates, x
and y values stretch out indefinitely in both directions, but in polar
coordinates angles wrap around in cycles of 2π in the manner defined
by the verb wrap
above. In mathematical notation,
ln(z) = ln(re^{πiθ}) = ln(r) + i(θ + 2kπ)
where k is an integer. As a matter of arbitrary (but natural!) choice, J returns the unique angle which lies in the range [π, π]. The same wrapping process applies when real numbers are raised to complex powers :
*.2^4j4.5 4j4.6 16 3.11916 NB. unwrapped 16 _3.09471 NB. wrapped
More specifically, if k is real and z=x+iy, then k^{z} is illustrated by
*.2^2j1 3j2 4 0.693147 NB. k to power x, y times ln(k) 8 1.38629 NB. with angle doubled
The cases ‘complex raised to real’ (de Moivre’s theorem) and ‘real raised to complex’ have now been covered, leaving only the case ‘complex raised to complex’ to be dealt with. An interesting starting point is the number i^{i}, which at first sight should be about as complex as it gets:
0j1^0j1 NB. i to the power i 0.20788
Not so! To explain this result, consider first ln(i^{i})=i×ln(i). Using the formula
ln(re^{πiθ}) = ln(r) + i(θ + 2kπ)
and choosing k=0 (as J does) to make the logarithm singlevalued, gives lni = 0+iπ/2 which, when multipled by i, gives π/2. i^{i} must therefore be e^{π/2}, which has the value 0.20788 to 5 decimal places. This sequence of calculations is confirmed by
(^.0j1), (^.0j1^0j1), (^o.0.5) 0j1.5708 _1.5708 0.20788
Here is the i^{i} calculation spelt out in a single line:
ln=.(^[email protected]{. , }.)@*. NB. log length, angle (^@*j./@ln)0j1 NB. i to the power i 0.20788
The verb ln
fulfils the familiar ‘reduce multiplication
to addition’ property of logarithms of real numbers, that is
log(ab) =
loga +
logb
,
for example:
ln 1j2*3j4 NB. ln ab 2.41416 2.03444 +/ln 1j2 3j4 NB. ln a + ln b 2.41416 2.03444
For powers where both w and z are fully complex (that is, have nonzero imaginary parts) the following sequence of equivalences
w^{z} = (e^{ln w})^{z} = (e^{z})^{ln w} = e^{zln w}
leads to, for example
2j1^1j3 NB. 2j1 to the power 1j3 _0.537177j0.145082 ^1j3*j./ln 2j1 NB. e to the power ln w _0.537177j0.145082
It is not easy, perhaps impossible, to visualise the relationship of
wz to w and z diagrammatically, that is the link of
_0.537177j0.145082
with 2j1
and
1j3
is a numerical rather than a graphical one. The
same is true for other functions which can accept complex arguments,
for examples trig ratios and their inverses. Also the logarithms
concerned must be to the base e. e is one of the five most
fundamental numbers in the universe, namely 0, 1, e, π and i, which
are connected by the equation
1+e^{πi}=0.
It is reasonable to suppose that advanced intelligent communicators
from outer space (if such there be) would certainly try to convey this
set of numbers to us as an immediate lingua franca.
This equation can be expressed in J in the following three equivalent
ways:
(1+^o.j.1), (1+_12 o.o.1), (1+r.o.1) 0 0 0
The equation
1+eπi=0
can be rewritten
ln(1)=πi, which, since
ln(r)=ln(r)+ln(1),
means that the natural logarithms of negative real numbers are
obtained by appending j
π to the logarithm of the corresponding
positive number. For example:
^.5.2 _5.2 NB. (ln r), (ln r) 1.64866 1.64866j3.14159
7. Extension to Quaternions
Given a matrix of the form
a  –b 
b  a 
where a and b are real numbers, e.g.
M=.2 2$2 _3 3 2
and an inner product of M
with a 2list such as
M +/ .* 2 _1 7 4
the same information could be obtained by multiplying two complex scalars:
2j3*2j_1 7j4
Similarly finding the determinant of M
is equivalent to a
couple of operations on a complex scalar:
(det=./ .*)M NB. determinant of M 13 *:10 o.2j3 NB. sum of squares of 2 and 3 13
Thus complex numbers can be used as a means of reducing the rank level of some operations. An ‘obvious’ question is then: if complex data can reduce rank2 operations to rank 1, can it correspondingly reduce rank3 operations to rank 2? This speculation is not unique to J, in fact the question was answered in the mid19th century by Sir William Hamilton, who discovered that this progression is multiplicative rather than additive; that is, that the next step up is not from 2 to 3 but from 2 to 4.
First define a verb which transfoms a 2list of real scalars into a matrix of the above form:
r2ltom=.,._1 1&*@. NB. matrix from real 2list r2ltom 2 3 2 _3 3 2
Next observe that is possible to have a matrix with complex coefficients which nevertheless has a real determinant, for example:
C =. 2 2$4j3 6j_2 _6j2 4j3 det C 39
The matrix C
has the form
Pj Q 
(–R)j –S 
Rj S 
Pj Q 
which is the form
a  –b 
b  a 
extended to complex elements. Straightforward arithmetic
shows that the determinant of a matrix of the above form has a real
part
(P^{2}–Q^{2}+R^{2}–S^{2})
and an imaginary part
2(PQ+RS)
and so, if
PQ=–RS, as is the case with C
,
the determinant is real, otherwise not.
In the ‘all real’ case,
Q=S=0 and
det
(M)=P^{2}–R^{2}.
If the form is now changed to
Pj Q 
(–R)j S 
Rj S 
Pj –Q 
that is,
a  
b 
where the
dashes denote complex conjugates, then the determinant is
arithmetically guaranteed to be real for all values of
P, Q, R and S. If this is now taken as
a standard form then four fundamental matrices obtainable by setting
each of P, Q, R and S to 1 and the other
three to zero correspond to unit points on the axes of a
fourdimensional geometrical space as denoted by
(1,0),
(0,1),
(i,0) and
(0,i).
A verb analogous to r2ltom
which constructs
the above matrix from a 2list of complex scalars is
c2ltom=.,[email protected][email protected](*&1 _1) NB. matrix from complex 2list c2ltom 2j3 4j5 2j3 _4j5 4j5 2j_3
Define variables to correspond to (1,0), (0,1), (i,0) and (0,i):
]'I i j k'=.c2ltom &.> 1 0 ;0 1;0j1 0;0 0j1 +++++ 1 00 _10j1 0 0 0j1 0 11 0 0 0j_10j1 0 +++++
and selfmultiply each of these matrices:
times=.+/ .* &.> NB. matrix multiply times~ i;j;k NB. squares of i, j and k ++++ _1 0_1 0_1 0  0 _1 0 _1 0 _1 ++++ times~^:2 i;j;k NB. 4th powers of i, j and k ++++ 1 01 01 0 0 10 10 1 ++++
which shows that i^{2}=j^{2}=k^{2}=–I and i^{4}=j^{4}=k^{4}=I where I is the identity matrix. Now multiply i, j and k by each other:
(i;j;k)times(j;k;i) NB. result is k;i;j ++++  0 0j10 _10j1 0 0j1 01 0 0 0j_1 ++++ (j;k;i)times(i;j;k) NB. result is (k);(i);(j) ++++  0 0j_1 0 10j_1 0 0j_1 0_1 0 0 0j1 ++++ det&> i;j;k NB. determinants equal 1 1 1 1
If i, j and k are raised to third powers a further three matrices not previously encountered arise:
]'ci cj ck'=.(i;j;k)times(i;j;k)times i;j;k ++++  0 10j_1 0 0 0j_1 _1 0 0 0j10j_1 0 ++++
but now, however much the set of eight matrices
I, I, i, j, k, cj, ck, ci
are intermultiplied, the result is always another member of the set,
for example:
(i;j;k)times cj;ck;ci NB. result is ck;ci;cj ++++  0 0j_1 0 10j_1 0 0j_1 0_1 0 0 0j1 ++++
The set of eight matrices possesses the properties of a
group, more specifically the quaternion group.
Although there are eight elements in the group these are all related
to each other, and the whole set of seven excluding the identity
matrix can be generated from any two. For example if i
and j
are chosen as generators,
k
is ij
, ci
and cj
are defined as powers of i
and j
,
and ck
is cj
multiplied by ci
.
The seventh matrix is the common value of i^{2} and j^{2}.
If, analogous to j
, J were to contain two further
independent number constructors k
and m
such
that 2j3k4m5
were a scalar, and the same rules
i^{2}=j^{2}=k^{2}=–I and
i^{4}=j^{4}=k^{4}=I
applied where
I=l
,
i=0j1k0m0
,
j=0j0k1m0
,
k=0j0k0m1
then these scalars would be recognised mathematically as
hypercomplex numbers. The four basic hypercomplex numbers
for which the real elements are (1 0 0 0), (0 1 0 0), (0 0 1 0) and (0
0 0 1) would follow the same multiplication structure as the set of
eight matrices, and form a group isomorphic with the quaternion group.
A scalar such as 0j3k4m5
whose first element is zero
corresponds to a pure quaternion and so pure quaternions
exactly match points in threedimensional space, or quantities such as
E, B, H which define electromagnetic fields as threedimensional
entities. Such equivalences are of course only useful if the
operations employed on them are guaranteed to produce further pure
quaternions.